- 1 What was the transportation of prisoners?
- 2 What was transportation like for male convicts?
- 3 How did the convicts travel?
- 4 How were convicts transported to Australia and what was the journey like?
- 5 Why did convict transportation come to an end?
- 6 Could convicts go back to England?
- 7 Who was the most famous convict?
- 8 What crimes did convicts commit?
- 9 What were the punishments for convicts?
- 10 Where did the convicts sleep?
- 11 What did convicts do in their free time?
- 12 What did convicts do on the ships?
- 13 What did child convicts eat?
- 14 How long did it take to transport convicts to Australia?
- 15 What are the 19 crimes against the crown?
What was the transportation of prisoners?
Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony, for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.
What was transportation like for male convicts?
Transportation to New South Wales was abandoned and, while convicts continued to be sent to Van Diemen’s Land, the way in which their labour was deployed was reorganised in order to bring it more into line with the principles of prison management advocated by British and Irish penal reformers.
How did the convicts travel?
There was no ship engaged exclusively for convict transportation use, all being used for general cargo, or passenger transport, at various times. Vessels chartered for convict transport were mainly square rigged ships or barques, with the exception of a few brigs, the majority being small to moderate tonnage.
How were convicts transported to Australia and what was the journey like?
The journey was long and hard. For the first 20 years, prisoners were chained up for the entire 8 months at sea. The cells were divided into compartments by wooden or iron bars. On some ships as many as 50 convicts were crammed into one compartment.
Why did convict transportation come to an end?
The economic depression of the 1840s – felt across all the Australian colonies – affected Western Australia very badly. The fledgling colony did not yet have sufficient population, capital or markets to weather the downturn.
Could convicts go back to England?
If a convict was well behaved, the convict could be given a ticket of leave, granting some freedom. At the end of the convict’s sentence, seven years in most cases, the convict was issued with a Certificate of Freedom. He was then free to become a settler or to return to England.
Who was the most famous convict?
Top 5 Famous Australian Convicts
- Francis Greenway. Francis Greenway arrived in Sydney in 1814.
- Mary Wade. The youngest ever convict to be transported to Australia at the age of 11.
- John ‘Red’ Kelly. John Kelly was sent to Tasmania for seven years for stealing two pigs, apparently.
- Mary Bryant.
- Frank the Poet.
What crimes did convicts commit?
10 common crimes committed by convicts
- Petty theft. By far the most common crime that led to transportation was petty theft or larceny.
- Burglary or housebreaking.
- Highway robbery.
- Stealing clothing.
- Stealing animals.
- Military offences.
- Crimes of deception.
What were the punishments for convicts?
Throughout the convict era, ‘flogging’ (whipping) convicts with a cat-o’-nine-tails was a common punishment for convicts who broke the rules. In Australia today, flogging a prisoner with a whip or keeping them locked in a dark cell for a long period of time is not an acceptable form of punishment.
Where did the convicts sleep?
Convicts slept in hammocks that were folded away each morning. Each ward had a large wooden tub that served as a communal toilet. The convicts had to carefully carry these tubs outside daily to be emptied and cleaned. Each of the wards held up to 60 men.
What did convicts do in their free time?
Convicts played cards or games like chess or draughts that required different sorts of tokens, many of which were handmade. These might have been carved from animal bones (perhaps saved from dinner) or pieces of ceramic and wood they found, or cast in lead. chess. draughts.
What did convicts do on the ships?
Down at the edge of Sydney Harbour, convicts built boats and made rope and sails for ships. Other convicts transported water and food stores, or loaded and unloaded ships that had arrived from other parts of the world.
What did child convicts eat?
It was usually 450 grams of salted meat (either mutton or beef), cooked again into a stew, and some bread. By 1826, the government also had a more established cattle stock available and so the meat served to convicts was fresher and taken from better-quality cuts than before.
How long did it take to transport convicts to Australia?
They carried around 1400 convicts, soldiers and free people. The journey from England to Australia took 252 days and there were around 48 deaths on the voyage.
What are the 19 crimes against the crown?
- Grand Larceny, theft above the value of one shilling.
- Petty Larceny, theft under one shilling.
- Buying or receiving stolen goods, jewels, and plate
- Stealing lead, iron, or copper, or buying or receiving.
- Impersonating an Egyptian.
- Stealing from furnished lodgings.
- Setting fire to underwood.